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    Literature and Curriculum

    With the help of our collaborators and speakers, we have compiled the following list of resources for teachers interested in implementing what they have learned in our 2020 "Teaching China in the Age of Covid-19" Workshop as a reflective curriculum within their classroom. 

    The Origins of Covid-19: Fact Versus Fiction.




     

     

     

     


     

    Wuhan Market Image

    "Say No to Bat Fried Rice: Changing the Narratives of Coronavirus and Chinese Food." Dr. Michelle T. King. (2020)

    "The fear of Chinese food in the United States has risen with the advent of COVID-19, amidst widespread news reports pinpointing a wildlife wet market in Wuhan, China as the origin site of the novel coronavirus. Although scientific evidence for the exact pathway of zoonotic transmission is not yet conclusive, racist, anti-Chinese memes were quick to circulate, including a T-shirt design posted on social media by an art director at Lululemon, which featured an image of "bat fried rice" with the words "No Thank You" in chopstick font on the sleeves. It is important to address the facts of the wildlife trade and consumption in China, but it is equally crucial to fight back against racist characterizations of Chinese food as "bat fried rice" with a different kind of Instagrammable image. I have taught an undergraduate seminar on the cultural history of Chinese food at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill for the past eight years, and this year, one of my students shared a photograph of a Chinese family celebrating the New Year in one of her assignments. This image distilled everything I associate with Chinese food-- the joy of gathering with family-- and stands as a powerful rebuke to the narrative of fear and disgust, replacing it instead with a vision of Chinese food as a familiar source of comfort." 


    Spillover David Quammen "Spillover: Animal Infections and the Next Human Pandemic." Dr. David Quammen. (2012)

    Specifically recommended by guest speaker and historian Dr. Michelle King, Spillover is an investigation of zoonotic viruses, their tendency to spread to humans, and the implications of this spread in terms of the future of our planet.
    "With Evolution to provide the fuel and chance to provide the spark, infections can burst through barriers, ravaging habitats like wildfire. When we cannot control the variables, our own habitat could be the next microbial target. Reporting from the epicenters of microbial infection in his new book, Spillover: Animal Infections and the Next Human Pandemic, award-winning writer David Quammen examines one of nature's grim promises: disease will jump from animals to humans, zoonotic spillovers of sorts. Quammen questions the causes of these spillover events, ultimately concluding that we humans may be the very ones providing the sparks, and then turning around and crying fire." (Abdul Kareem-Ahmed).
    We have also included a 2012 interview with David Quammen on the Scientific American Podcast and the implications of his research. 






    Covid Grafitti"Contextualizing Coronavirus Geographically." Dr. Matthew Sparke & Dr. Dimitar Anguelov. (2020)

    “This editorial introduces a special virtual issue aimed at providing online access to articles that can contribute to the work of coming to geographical terms with the COVID‐19 pandemic. It outlines seven sub‐themes of inquiry and analysis that are especially useful for contextualizing coronavirus geographically. These are explored in turn as geographies of: (1) infection, (2) vulnerability, (3) resilience, (4) blame, (5) immunization, (6) interdependence, and (7) care. In each case, connections are made between publications that are included in the special virtual issue and other more recent writings related specifically to COVID‐19. In an effort to make these connections as useful as possible to geographers who have been drafted into online teaching in and about the pandemic, hyperlinks are used throughout to highlight additional online resources and reports.”

    Coronavirus Political Cartoon“Teaching Covid-19 Topics in a Geographic Framework"  Dr. Helen Hazen. (2020)
    Curriculum for High School and Undergraduate Students.

    This editorial introduces a special virtual issue aimed at providing online access to articles that can contribute to the work of coming to geographical terms with the COVID‐19 pandemic. It outlines seven sub‐themes of inquiry and analysis that are especially useful for contextualizing coronavirus geographically. These are explored in turn as geographies of: (1) infection, (2) vulnerability, (3) resilience, (4) blame, (5) immunization, (6) interdependence, and (7) care. In each case, connections are made between publications that are included in the special virtual issue and other more recent writings related specifically to COVID‐19. In an effort to make these connections as useful as possible to geographers who have been drafted into online teaching in and about the pandemic, hyperlinks are used throughout to highlight additional online resources and reports.”


    China's Response to the Novel Coronavirus

    Pawel Pacholec 1"The house was on fire." Top Chinese virologist on how China and U.S. have met the pandemic." John Cohen. (2020)"

    An interview between Shao Yiming, virologist, and top AIDS specialist at the CDC in China, and Jon Cohen, American journalist on science. The two exchange opinions on the effectiveness of China and the United States’ respective responses to the virus and ethics of tracking cell phones to monitor exposure to COVID-19. This exchange offers key insights into the differing views on China’s response to the coronavirus and a brief discussion on their authoritarian control over their citizen’s technology.

    "Governmental responses to Covid-19 and its economic impact: a brief Euro-Asian comparison." Frauke Austermann, Wei Shen, & Assen Slim. (2020)

    This paper provides a brief, timely, and Euro-Asian comparative perspective on COVID-19 with a focus on the interface of government and economy: “We analyzed selected Asian and European countries along the degree of strictness when shutting down economic and social life: China, which has reacted with an unprecedented lockdown, especially in Wuhan, where the corona-virus was first detected; South Korea, which has been strict in detecting and isolating confirmed cases but which has refrained from locking down the economy; France, which has highly limited social and economic freedom; and finally Germany, which has taken a more liberal approach of locking down the economy.”



    Beijing Art Exhibition 3“Americans Fault China for Its Role in the Spread of COVID-19.”  Laura Silver, Kat Devlin, & Christine Huang. (2020)
    Reading for High School Students.

    A collection of statistics of American’s attitudes regarding China and the coronavirus, from the spread of the virus to the government’s response and its effectiveness to contain the pandemic. The statistics as a whole appear to noticeably lean towards the negative and when paired with the previous article by Budhwani and Sun, point towards a strongly negative view of China and their involvement with the pandemic.

    "Lesson of the Day: To Tame Coronavirus, Mao-Style Social Control Blankets China." Jeremy Engle. (2020)
    Curriculum for Middle School or High School Students.

    In this lesson, assembled by Jeremy Engle of The Learning Network and published by the New York Times, students will gradually learn about the extraordinary measures taken by China to fight the spread of the coronavirus as well as develop their own understanding in regards to the ethics, rewards, and consequences of these measures. Additionally, this lesson plan is linked to additional New York Times articles, documenting the progress of the novel coronavirus spread within China and the perspectives of various parties on the choices made by the Chinese state and its citizens in order to block the virus' path. 


    Combatting Anti-Asian Racism in Our Communities and Classrooms



    Protest Anti Asian Racism

    "The Chinese Exclusion Act & an Overview of Anti-Chinese Sentiment in the United States.

    Produced by the AAPF (African American Policy Forum), this resource provides an overview of anti-Chinese sentiment in the United States dating back to the late 19th century. Particularly, this resource highlights the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and the persecution that both preceded and accompanied it. The source likewise draws special attention to the difficulties experienced by female Chinese immigrants, who faced additional persecution compared to their male counterparts. Along with textual descriptions, the AAPF provides several political cartoons and a short video documentary to accompany the information provided. This information is in conformity with the Arkansas Department of Education standards for high school social studies as indicated in the curriculum framework for World History since 1450. Specifically, this resource fits into the standard described in Era 7: Age of Revolution 1750-1900. “Compare the social and economic impact of different labor systems in the Age of Revolutions from multiple perspectives using primary and secondary sources” and “Analyze the reasons for and consequences of involuntary and voluntary mass migration.”


    Chinese Americans of Oregon

    "Exclusion and Racism against Chinese Immigrants in the 19th Century." Teaching for Change: Building Social Justice Staring in the Classroom.
    Curriculum for High School Students.

    This resource, made public by Teaching For Change: Building Social Justice Starting in the Classroom, provides a highly detailed lesson plan by Debbie Wei, curriculum specialist in Asian American Studies, a former member of the school district of Philadelphia and current elementary school principal at the American Embassy School in New Delhi. This lesson plan consists of a handout designed by Debbie Wei that describes course objectives, purpose, and procedures for educators, as well as relevant reading material for students. This reading material draws on a variety of different sources including historical photos, newspaper prints and political cartoons, and primary sources including songs, poems, and abstracts written by different historical individuals. This well-rounded lesson plan is likewise in conformity to the Arkansas Department of Education standards for high school social studies and fulfills the expectations outlined in Dimension 3: “Gather relevant information from multiple perspectives and a variety of sources; evaluate the credibility of the source by determining its relevance and intended use” and “Use evidence from multiple sources to answer compelling and supporting questions by developing arguments with claims and counterclaims and providing explanations”

    I am not a virus two year old girl"Coronavirus and Infectious Racism." The Anti-Defamation League.
    Curriculum for Middle School Students.

    This resource from the Anti-Defamation League is a lesson plan aiding in the understanding of the new wave of “Coronavirus and Infectious Racism”. It discusses the increase in hate-crimes against Chinese Americans, Chinese immigrants, and those who are simply perceived to be Chinese. The learning objective of this lesson plan is to “Use the resources and activities [provided] to expand [their] understanding of how the Coronavirus pandemic is increasing racism against people who are of Chinese or Asian descent, and what [they] can do about it”. Materials included are a New York Times opinion video titled “How Coronavirus Racism Infected my High School”, “A Timeline of the Coronavirus” from the New York Times, and “WHO best practices for the naming of new infectious diseases” from the World Health Organization. The lesson plan also includes vocabulary with easy-to-read definitions so middle-schoolers will be able to understand, extra resources to learn more, and ways to spread positive change in their communities.



    My ethnicity is not a virus Red Hong Yi"We are All Chinese Now: COVID-19 and Anti-Asian Racism in the United States.” Dr. Linda Hasunuma. The Asia-Pacific Journal. (2020)

    This article discusses the arrival and spread of COVID-19 in America, and the rise of anti-Asian racism and violence that came to be directed at Asian-Americans, having all been lumped together as “Chinese” in the eyes of Americans who couldn’t tell the difference, and completely undermining the strives and wins of visibility that Asians and Asian-Americans had been achieving before the virus. The author, Dr. Linda Hasunuma, includes how the sudden change felt from her perspective, along with including images where Asian-Americans either had their businesses vandalized due to racism, or actively made signs to distance themselves from being considered “Chinese.”

     

     

     

    I am not a virusPotential Impact of COVID-19–Related Racial Discrimination on the Health of Asian Americans. Justin A. Chen, Emily Zhang, & Cindy H. Liu. American Journal of Public Health. (2020)

    Due to the presence of COVID-19 in the United States, along with the rise of anti-Asian discrimination during it, this article provides a general overview of past examples of anti-Asian racism in the United States (like the “Yellow Peril” and The Chinese Exclusion Act), along with discussions over the possible decline of the health of Asian Americans that COVID-19 related discrimination can cause. The article also mentions, however, possible positives that can be taken from current times, like challenging the “model minority” myth, along with the emergence of certain mechanisms for increasing awareness of racism’s possible harming, along with more research into factors that could reduce the negative health effects of racism.

    Kung Flu Virus Outwork

    STOP AAPI HATE: Asian Pacific Policy & Planning Council. 

    Based out of Los Angeles, established in the wake of the 1965 Watts Riots out of a need for extended community service programs, the Asian Pacific Policy & Planning Council is "a coalition of community-based organizations that advocates for the rights and needs of the Asian & Pacific Islander American Community in the greater Los Angeles area, with a particular focus on a low income, immigrant, refugee and other disadvantaged sectors of the population."
    In the wake of the 2020 novel coronavirus and pandemic, the STOP AAPI HATE Center was established, meant to help people document incidents of racism and harassment. The website offers incident reports in twelve different languages. It also offers an additional list of resources, literature, and news articles, on a variety of topics, including state legislation established in the wake of the pandemic as well as the experiences of Asian Americans.





    The Future of US-China Relations




    Hong Kong Protest ARt
    As China Imposes New Hong Kong Law, U.S. And Allies Take Steps To Retaliate

    This article helps outline some of the current international relationships between China, the U.S., and the Allies of both. It also provides some insight into China’s relationship with Hong Kong and how it impacts China’s relationship with the world, especially with countries that are sympathetic to what they see as the democratic plight of Hong Kong. This resource lines up with Arkansas State Social Studies Standard HS.6.7.2 (Analyze reasons for and effects of cultural diffusion, cultural convergence, and cultural divergence in and across various regions) by discussing the relationship between China and Hong Kong, teachers can bring up the differences in culture between Hong Kong and mainland China, and why those differences exist. 



    Xi Jinping Barack Obama California

    A Timeline of US-China Relations

    From the Council on Foreign Relations, this gives a clear overview timeline on U.S.-China Relations. Ranging from 1949, the establishment of the People’s Republic of China, it provides great insight into key events that have shaped U.S.-China relations. It also links to further resources that help provide greater context to some of the events talked about in the timeline. This resource does not link to a specific Social Studies standard, but instead to a larger goal outlined in Arkansas curriculum as a whole. It links to a variety of secondary sources that can be used by teachers to help students learn how to analyze, critique, and interpret these types of sources. The timeline also displays the interconnectedness of China and America throughout recent history which lines up with the idea of globalization and the increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world.


    Tsai Ing WenWhat's behind the China-Taiwan divide?

    This source gives background information on the history of Taiwan, the relationship between Taiwan and China, and brings in some global perspectives on how China and its relationship with Taiwan are viewed by other powers.
    The article also delves into U.S.-Taiwan relations and how this relationship impacts the political dynamic between the United States and China.
    This resource lines up with Arkansas State Social Studies Standard Era9.4.WH.8 for World History Since 1450: analyze ways historical contexts continue to shape people’s perspectives.

    "The Past, Present, and Future of U.S.-Relations." Dr. Mark J. Mullenbach. (2020)

    The following is a transcript of Dr. Mark J. Mullenbach's presentation for our workshop series, including a vi
    sual timeline of the political and economic relationships between the United States and China, as well as a range of perspectives on the possible futures of US-China relations. 

     

     

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    Housed within the Asian Studies Program at the University of Central Arkansas, the Arkansas NCTA aims to empower elementary and secondary school teachers to center East Asian art, literature, history, and culture in their classrooms.

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